UNIVAC® 1100 Series FIELDATA Code


       CPU              80 Column       Military

     (octal)    Char    Punch Card      FIELDATA



        00        @       7-8        MS: Master Space

        01        [       12-5-8     UC: Upper Case

        02        ]       11-5-8     LC: Lower Case

        03        #       12-7-8     LF: Line Feed

        04        ^       11-7-8     CR: Carriage Return

        05                (blank)    SP: Space

        06        A       12-1

        07        B       12-2

        10        C       12-3

        11        D       12-4

        12        E       12-5

        13        F       12-6

        14        G       12-7

        15        H       12-8

        16        I       12-9

        17        J       11-1

        20        K       11-2

        21        L       11-3

        22        M       11-4

        23        N       11-5

        24        O       11-6

        25        P       11-7

        26        Q       11-8

        27        R       11-9

        30        S       0-2

        31        T       0-3

        32        U       0-4

        33        V       0-5

        34        W       0-6

        35        X       0-7

        36        Y       0-8

        37        Z       0-9

        40        )       12-4-8

        41        -       11

        42        +       12

        43        <       12-6-8

        44        =       3-8

        45        >       6-8

        46        &       2-8

        47        $       11-3-8

        50        *       11-4-8

        51        (       0-4-8

        52        %       0-5-8

        53        :       5-8

        54        ?       12-0

        55        !       11-0

        56        ,       0-3-8

        57        \       0-6-8      STOP: Stop

        60        0       0

        61        1       1

        62        2       2

        63        3       3

        64        4       4

        65        5       5

        66        6       6

        67        7       7

        70        8       8

        71        9       9

        72        '       4-8

        73        ;       11-6-8

        74        /       0-1

        75        .       12-3-8

        76               0-7-8      SPEC: Special

        77        =       0-2-8      IDLE: Idle

Notes

  1. FIELDATA was developed by the United States Army as a character code for military communications. Three revisions of MIL-STD-188 appeared over the years from 1958 through 1969 [1-3]. FIELDATA was defined as a 7-bit, 128 character code with the first 64 characters reserved for control codes (which varied among the different versions of the standard). UNIVAC used the second half of the FIELDATA code, which contained all the graphic characters and simple teletype control codes, as the character set for the UNIVAC 1107 and later machines.

  2. The punch card codes given corresponded, in cases where FIELDATA and the keyboard of the manual card punch (keypunch) overlapped, to the IBM 026 vacuum tube keypunch. The later IBM 029 keypunch assigned different hole patterns to some of the punctuation marks, consistent with the EBCDIC code of the IBM System/360. Many UNIVAC systems were later modified to accept the IBM 029 hole patterns as an option, translating them into codes for the corresponding FIELDATA characters.

  3. The codes defined as carriage control (CR, LF, etc.) in MIL-STD-188 but assigned graphics in the UNIVAC variant of FIELDATA behaved differently depending on the device to which they were sent. UNIVAC 1107 and 1108 consoles incorporating a FIELDATA Teletype 35 printer used the FIELDATA CR and LF codes for the intended purpose and printed a stop sign for the "STOP" code (057 octal). On the UNIVAC 1108 display console (Type 4009, based on a UNISCOPE 300), there were discrepancies among the keyboard symbols, what appeared on the display screen, and the output of the PAGEWRITER printer. Some UNIVAC line printers terminated output of a given line at the first IDLE (077 octal) character while others, including the UNIVAC 1004 card reader/printer, printed it as a not-equal sign, and printed subsequent characters on a line. Imagine how much fun these little discrepancies caused when moving programs from machine to machine, or when a site installed a new piece of hardware.

  4. In the original specification of the Computer Sciences Corporation 1107 Monitor System, which was eventually adopted by Univac as EXEC II, the FIELDATA "Master Space" (octal 0) code was used in card input streams to distinguish command and data cards. In their manuals, CSC and later Univac used the Del character, an inverted Greek capital delta, to signify the Master Space. Noting the resemblance of this graphic to the Delta printed for character code 4 by the UNIVAC 1004 some sites, including Case Institute of Technology and Chi Corporation, swapped the printer codes so that CPU code 00 printed as Delta and code 04 as "@". The card reader codes remained the same; a 7-8 punch in column 1 signified a "control card".

  5. In the 1970's, UNIVAC adopted ASCII as the standard and transitioned their software, for the most part, to that 8-bit code. Still, years later, if you looked hard enough you could find little bits of FIELDATA lurking all over even the most modern 1100 system.

  6. UNIVAC has been, over the years, a registered trademark of Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, Remington Rand Corporation, Sperry Rand Corporation, Sperry Corporation, and Unisys Corporation. FASTRAND is a trademark of Sperry Rand Corporation, since merged into Unisys Corporation.

References

  1. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188A, 1958 April 25.

  2. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188B, 1964 February 24.

  3. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188C, 1969 November 24.

  4. Sperry Rand Corporation, UNIVAC 1107 Central Computer, UP-2463 Rev. 2. No date; this manual was obtained in 1967.

  5. Sperry Rand Corporation, UNIVAC 1108 Processor and Storage ,UP-4053 Rev. 1, 1966, 1970.

  6. Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development, Addison-Wesley, 1980.

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Compiled by John Walker
August 6, 1996